Kung fu and wushu are loanwords from Cantonese and Mandarin respectively that, in English, are used to refer to Bare hung loving martial arts. The term wushu has also become the name for the modern sport of wushuan exhibition and full-contact sport of bare-handed and weapons forms Chinese: It means "fist method" or "the law of the Bare hung loving quan means "boxing" or "fist", and fa means "law", "way" or "method"although as a compound term it usually translates as "boxing" or "fighting technique.
The genesis of Chinese martial arts Bare hung loving been attributed to the need for self-defensehunting techniques and military training in ancient China. Hand-to-hand combat and weapons practice were important in training ancient Chinese soldiers.
Detailed knowledge about the state and development of Chinese martial arts became available from the Nanjing decade — Bare hung loving, as the Central Guoshu Institute established by the Kuomintang regime made an effort to compile an encyclopedic survey of martial arts schools. The earliest references to Chinese martial arts are found in the Spring and Autumn Annals 5th century BCE where a hand-to-hand combat theory, one that integrates notions of "hard" and "soft" techniques, is mentioned.
In the Tang Dynastydescriptions of sword dances were immortalized in poems by Li Bai. In the Song and Bare hung loving dynastiesxiangpu contests were sponsored by the imperial courts.
The modern concepts of wushu were fully developed by the Ming and Qing dynasties. The ideas associated with Chinese martial arts changed with the evolution of Chinese society and over time acquired some philosophical bases: Zhuangzi, its eponymous author, is believed to have lived in the 4th century BCE. The Dao De Jingoften credited to Lao Ziis another Taoist text that contains principles applicable to martial arts. Daoist practitioners have been practicing Tao Yin physical exercises similar to Qigong that was one of the progenitors to T'ai chi ch'uan from as early as BCE.
Direct reference to Daoist concepts can be found in such styles as the " Eight Immortals ," which uses fighting techniques attributed Bare hung loving the characteristics of each immortal.
The Shaolin style of kung fu is regarded as one of the first institutionalized Chinese martial arts. From the 8th to the 15th centuries, there are no extant documents that provide evidence of Shaolin participation in combat.
Between the 16th and 17th centuries, at least forty sources exist to provide evidence both that monks of Shaolin practiced martial arts, and that martial practice became an integral element of Shaolin monastic Bare hung loving. The earliest appearance of the frequently cited legend concerning Bodhidharma's supposed foundation of Shaolin Kung Fu dates to this period. References of martial arts practice in Shaolin appear in various literary genres of the late Ming: However these sources do not point out to any specific style originated in Shaolin.
These include a skill for which Shaolin monks became famous: When this book spread to East Asia, it had a great influence on the Bare hung loving of martial arts in regions such as Okinawa  and Korea. Most fighting styles that are being practiced as traditional Chinese martial arts today reached their popularity within the 20th century. The increase in the popularity of those styles is a result of the dramatic changes occurring within the Chinese society.
In —01, the Righteous and Harmonious Fists rose against foreign occupiers and Christian missionaries in China. This uprising is known in the West as the Boxer Rebellion due to the martial arts and calisthenics practiced by the rebels. Empress Dowager Cixi gained control of the rebellion and tried to use it against the foreign powers. The failure of the rebellion led ten years later to the fall of the Qing Dynasty and the creation of the Chinese Republic.
The present view of Chinese martial arts are strongly influenced by the events of the Republican Period — In the transition period between the fall of the Qing Bare hung loving as well as the turmoil of the Japanese invasion and the Chinese Civil War, Chinese martial arts became more accessible to the general public as many Bare hung loving artists were encouraged to openly teach their art.
At that time, some considered martial arts as a means to promote national pride and build a strong nation. Inat the 11th Olympic Games in Berlin, a group of Chinese martial artists demonstrated their art to an international audience for the first time. Chinese martial arts experienced rapid international dissemination with the end of the Chinese Civil War and the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, Many well known martial artists chose to escape from the PRC's rule and migrate to TaiwanHong Kong and other parts of the world.
Those masters started to teach Bare hung loving the overseas Bare hung loving communities but eventually they expanded their teachings to include people from other ethnic groups.
Within China, the practice of traditional martial arts was discouraged during the turbulent Bare hung loving of the Chinese Cultural Revolution — This new competition sport was disassociated from what was seen as the potentially subversive self-defense aspects and family lineages of Chinese martial arts.
Inthe government established the All-China Wushu Association as an umbrella organization to regulate martial arts training. The Chinese State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports took the lead in creating standardized forms for most of the major arts.
During this period, a national Wushu system that included standard forms, teaching curriculum, and instructor grading was established. Wushu was introduced at both the high school and university level. The suppression of traditional teaching was relaxed during the Era of Reconstruction —as Communist ideology became more accommodating to alternative viewpoints.
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Inthe Chinese National Research Institute of Wushu was established as the central authority for the research and administration of Wushu activities in the People's Republic of China. Changing government policies and attitudes towards sports in general led to the closing of the State Sports Commission the central Bare hung loving authority in This closure is viewed as an attempt to partially de-politicize organized sports and move Chinese sport policies towards a more market -driven approach.
Bare hung loving martial arts are an integral element of 20th-century Chinese popular culture.
Bare hung loving Wuxia films were produced from the s. The Kuomintang suppressed wuxia, accusing it of promoting superstition and violent anarchy. Because of this, wuxia came to flourish in British Hong Kongand the genre of Bare hung loving fu movie in Hong Kong action cinema became wildly popular, coming to international attention from the s.
The genre underwent a drastic decline in the late s as the Hong Kong film industry was crushed by economic depression. In the wake of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragonthere has been somewhat of a revival of Chinese-produced wuxia films aimed at an international audience, including HeroHouse of Flying Daggers and Reign of Assassins China has a long history of martial arts traditions that includes hundreds of different styles.
Over the past two thousand years, many distinctive styles have been developed, each with its own set of techniques and ideas.
There are styles that mimic movements from animals and others that gather inspiration from various Chinese philosophiesmyths and legends. Some styles put most of their focus into the harnessing of qiwhile others concentrate on competition.
Chinese martial arts can be split into various categories to differentiate them: Examples of the northern styles include changquan and xingyiquan. There are distinctive differences in the training between different groups of the Chinese martial arts regardless of the type of classification. However, few experienced martial artists make a clear distinction between internal and external styles, or subscribe to the idea of northern systems being predominantly kick-based and southern systems relying more heavily on upper-body techniques.
Most styles contain both hard and soft elements, regardless of their internal nomenclature. Analyzing the difference in accordance with yin and yang principles, philosophers would assert that the absence of either one would render the practitioner's skills unbalanced or deficient, as yin and yang alone are each only half of a whole.
If such differences did once exist, they have since been blurred. Chinese martial arts training consists of the following components: A complete training system should also provide insight into Chinese attitudes and culture.
Basics are usually made up of rudimentary techniques, conditioning exercisesincluding stances. Basic training may involve simple movements that are performed repeatedly; other examples of basic training are stretching, meditation, strikingthrowingor jumping. Without strong and Bare hung loving muscles, management of Qi or breath, and proper body mechanics, it is impossible for a student to progress in the Chinese martial arts.
Train both Internal and External. External training includes the hands, the Bare hung loving, the body and stances.