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In the multiple minority stress framework, individuals and communities with multiple identities which are more likely to be subjected to discrimination and stigma may experience multiple stressors that interact to affect health. Of the approximately 1.

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While there is a robust body of literature examining the relationship between incarceration and health outcomes, there is limited knowledge about the impact of arrest on the health outcomes.

Arrest has been associated with HIV risk behaviors. Among juvenile arrestees in Florida, This analysis of arrest and sexual risk behavior among YMSM is guided by the multiple minority stress framework. Previous studies document 1 racial and ethnic disparities in Brooks ryan unprotected anal play and arrest a form of structural racism 21 as well as 2 an association, primarily between incarceration and sexual risk behaviors, among heterosexuals and MSM.

However, there is a dearth of literature on the impact of arrest a stressor for minority men on sexual risk behaviors in general and among young MSM YMSM specifically. The methods have been described in detail previously.

A total of confirmed seronegative YMSM were enrolled in the study, of whom had complete data. Data were collected on sociodemographics, relationship status, arrest and incarceration histories, childhood abuse and neglect, and psychosocial characteristics.

The dependent variable was UAS.

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The main independent variables of interest were race i. Arrest and incarceration were the psychosocial stressors of interest. With respect to illegal behaviors, questions addressed trading sex for money or drugs, illicit drug use, and selling drugs. Additional sociodemographic and economic characteristics included current school enrollment enrolled or notperceived socioeconomic status SES: Perceived SES was trichotomized as lower lower and lower middlemiddle, and upper upper middle and upper.

Sexual orientation was measured with the Kinsey scale, 25 which was dichotomized as exclusively homosexual versus not exclusively homosexual.

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Several psychosocial characteristics were measured. Additional potential minority stressors included public and personalized gay-related stigma and internalized homophobia. Gay-related public and personalized stigma were measured with two subscales adapted Brooks ryan unprotected anal play Berger et al. The three-item personalized stigma subscale score ranged from 3 to 12 and was dichotomized into low i.

Internalized homophobia was measured with a four-item scale from Thiede et al. Because childhood abuse Brooks ryan unprotected anal play neglect have been consistently associated with sexual risk behaviors, 28 — 30 we controlled for it in the multivariable analyses. Child abuse and neglect was measured using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth Add-Health mistreatment by adults scale.

Gay community affinity was measured with one item assessing the degree to which a participant felt part of the gay community in NYC using a Likert scale and was dichotomized into low i.

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Correlates of a lifetime history of arrest and UAS were also examined. An interaction between lifetime arrest and race was tested using a product term in the model. The final models are the most parsimonious models. In this sample of YMSM, 85 With regard to incarceration, 4.

The main reasons cited for recent incarceration were similar to those provided for recent arrest. Next, associations between drug use behaviors and arrest history were examined. Only childhood sexual abuse remained significant in multivariable models.

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Finally, also consistent across all three models, YMSM who reported experiences of childhood sexual abuse were almost three times more likely to report engaging in UAS. This is slightly lower than estimates from the — Add-Health surveys where between There were no significant differences in a circumscribed set illegal behaviors i. This has been observed in another study, where minority males in college were more likely to be stopped while driving despite the fact that White males were more likely to be carrying drugs in their cars.

It is unclear if the differences in arrest by race are due to differences in unmeasured illegal activities e.

With regard to the former, illegal activity data typically come from arrest or incarceration data and likely underestimate the proportion of people who engage in illegal activities. The proportion Brooks ryan unprotected anal play had been arrested varied by specific activities: With respect to racial disparities in policy implementation in NYC, stops of Blacks and Latinos are less likely than those of Whites to lead to arrest.

In this exploration of the relationship between arrest history and UAS among urban YMSM aged 18—19, a significant race by arrest qualitative interaction was observed.

The limited repertoire of explanatory variables makes it difficult to fully explain why the relationship between arrest and UAS is different by race. One explanation is confounding by drug use. Whites are more likely to use drugs, and drug use is strongly linked to UAS. There could also be unmeasured confounding. A test to see if internalized homophobia and personal gay-related stigma were confounders was conducted, but these variables were not significant in the full models [data not shown] and were removed from the final models.

There were several limitations to this study. This is a cross-sectional analysis and thus we cannot determine causality. Non-probability recruitment methods were used, so the sample may not be generalizable to the general population of YMSM. Data concerning timing of arrests and incarcerations were not available. The arrest rate was relatively low among this sample of YMSM, and as such, we have limited power to explore additional interactions. Because the parent cohort Brooks ryan unprotected anal play was not designed to specifically investigate the relation between criminal justice involvement and sexual risk behaviors, a limited number of variables with which to investigate this phenomenon are available.

Despite the study limitations, these findings are important for enhancing understanding of the relationship between criminal justice involvement and sexual risk behavior.

Moreover, police have been shown to rely on both behavioral and non-behavioral cues e. For Black and Latino men, arrest may be an indicator of discrimination. The multiple minority stress framework is useful for examining and understanding these relations.

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The experience of arrest has implications across the life course. Wiley and colleagues 43 have shown that being stopped or arrested is associated with higher levels of delinquency. Kirk and Sampson 44 have demonstrated that juvenile arrest is associated with educational attainment; arrested youth are more likely to drop out of high school and less likely to enroll in college.

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These findings have implications for future research and interventions. With respect to interventions, these findings highlight the need to target White and API YMSM at risk for arrest as well as those with a history of arrest with sexual risk reduction interventions.

The authors would like to thank the P18 study staff and participants. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Journal List J Urban Health v.

Published online Feb OmpadFarzana KapadiaFrancesca C. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Introduction

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. The funder did not have a role in the analysis and development of this manuscript. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed 11 March Minority stress and mental health in gay men. J Health Soc Behav. Triple jeopardy and beyond: Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.

Census Bureau, Population Division. April 1, to Brooks ryan unprotected anal play 1, Department of Commerce, Accessed 27 June Harawa N, Adimora A.

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Geiger-Oneto S, Phillips S. J Ethnic Crim Justice. Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.

J Am Stat Assoc. Arrest history among men and sexual orientation.

Logistic regression models for unprotected...

Arrest histories of high-risk gay and bisexual men in Miami: History of arrest and associated factors among men who have sex with men. Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: Recently arrested adolescents are at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning people.

Asian American communities and health.


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