Lung cancer is known as the most frequent and mortal human cancer. Although the exact etiology of NSCLC remains unclear, environment factor including smoking is recognized as an important pathogenic cause and even four lung cancer susceptibility loci are found to be associated and interacted with smoking in a large sample cases of Chinese patients [ 3 ].
Alluring trai chu b ty nude 18+
In recent studies, significant progresses have been made on the genetic pathogenesis and the correlation between specific genes to the susceptibility of lung cancer [ 14 - 6 ]. It has been further confirmed that genetic mechanisms, including gene mutation, gene deletion and gene polymorphism, determine the individual susceptibility to lung cancer of different people [ 78 ].
Programmed cell death apoptosis is a complicated biological process by which unwanted cells including malignant cells are eliminated from multicellular organisms in a non-harmful way.
Importantly, cancer cells proliferate out of control but tend to exhibit more apoptosis Trai chu b ty normal cells [ 9 - 11 ]. Dysregulation of apoptosis is crucial for carcinogenesis.
Endogenous TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAILa new member of the TNF cytokine family [ 1213 ], is expressed in natural killer NK cells, macrophages, T cells, and dendritic cells and is thought to involve in self-defense mechanism by killing virus-infected and cells [ 14 ] or inducing apoptosis of the malignant cells without affecting Trai chu b ty cells.
TRAIL has demonstrated an association with several autoimmune diseases, such as ulcerative colitis [ 15 ], thyroiditis [ 16 ], multiple sclerosis [ 17 ], systemic lupus erythematosus [ 18 ] and pathological liver disease Trai chu b ty 1920 ].
TRAIL gene is located on chromosome 3q26 with five exons encoding an approximately 1. And a recent immunohistochemical study proved a significantly less staining of TRAIL protein in cancer tissue than in normal tissue They are all offspring of the Han Chinese, without consanguinity, and smoking history unclear.
A total of age- and sex-matched healthy controls females and males were recruited from the Health Examination Center of Zhongnan Hospital. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committees of the three hospitals mentioned above.
Informed consent was obtained from the patients and healthy individuals. EDTA was used as an anticoagulant for blood samples.
The PCR conditions were Trai chu b ty as the followings: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was analyzed with chi square test for the distribution of genotype frequencies in the healthy persons.
All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS For all the analyses, a two-tailed p value less than 0. Even though the frequency of haplotype GGC in the NSCLC groups was higher than that in the control, the difference was statistically indifferent Trai chu b ty two groups The tumor formation of such cases relates in particular to TP53, KRAS and EGFR genes, which demonstrate strikingly different mutation patterns and frequencies between never-smokers and smokers of lung cancer [ 1 ].
On the other hand, the complex pathogenesis of NSCLC in smoking patients, however, covers at least four relatively clear mechanisms, i. The downstream p53 pathway contains target genes of p53 transcription required for the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and the death receptor pathway via the following four genes: The four genes are prominently deregulated, thus leading to strong resistance to mitochondrial and DR-induced apoptosis [ 1 ].
And it was concluded after a study in Chinese patients of lung cancer that the genetic variants in 3q28, 5p These imply that the genes and their variants affecting the risk of lung cancer vary with regions in the world.
And it needs to compare the genetic characteristics and signaling pathway of lung cancer of different races with more systematic and more general methods. TRAIL binds to Trai chu b ty death receptors DR4 and DR5 and induces cell apoptosis in virus-infected hepatocytes through activation of the caspase cascade reaction. Its receptors also include DcR1, DcR2 and three types of decoy receptor osteoprotegerin.
Some researchers have reported obvious correlation between DR4 variants and cancers, including head and neck cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, T cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, bladder cancer, prostate cancer [ 31 - 36 ]. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Int J Clin Exp Med. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Jul 15; Accepted Sep 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Non-small cell lung cancer, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, correlation, genetic polymorphism, haplotype.
Introduction Lung cancer is known as the most frequent and mortal human Trai chu b ty. Statistical analysis Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was analyzed with chi square test for the distribution of genotype frequencies in the healthy persons.
Open in a separate window. Disclosure of conflict of interest None. Brambilla E, Gazdar A. Pathogenesis of lung cancer signalling pathways: Association analyses identify multiple new lung cancer susceptibility loci and their interactions with smoking in the Chinese population.
A genome-wide association study identifies two new lung cancer susceptibility loci at 13q Systematic review of the relationship between family history and lung cancer risk. Polymorphisms in base-excision repair and nucleotide-excision repair genes in relation to lung cancer risk.
Apoptosis of colon cancer: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. Changes in apoptosis during the development of colorectal cancer: Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. Assessment of apoptosis by M30 immunoreactivity and the correlation with morphological criteria in normal colorectal mucosa, adenomas and carcinomas.
Identification and characterization of a new member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis. Induction Trai chu b ty apoptosis by Apo-2 ligand, a new member of the tumor necrosis factor cytokine family.
Correlations of genetic polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand gene and its plasma phenotype with ulcerative colitis in Chinese patients.